Types of piping system

A pipe can be defined as a tube made of metal, plastic, wood, concrete or fiberglass. Pipes are used to carry liquids, gases, slurries, or fine particles. A piping system is generally considered to include the complete interconnection of pipes, including in-line components such as pipe fittings and flanges. Pumps, heat exchanges, valves and tanks are also considered part of piping system. Piping systems are the arteries of our industrial processes and the contribution of piping systems are essential in an industrialized society.

They are designed for withstanding the operating and design conditions specified in the process parameters. Each component used in piping systems are specified in piping specification.

Pipe system components used are
1. Pipe
2. Pipe fittings
3. Flanges
4. Gaskets
5. Bolting
6. Valves
7. Specialities

Various methods of pipe joints:
1. Butt weld pipe joints
2. Socket weld pipe joints
3. Screwed pipe joints
4. Flanged pipe joints
5. Spigot socket pipe joints

Pipe is a tubular product used to convey a fluid. The pipe sizes are generally identified as nominal bore (NB) or nominal pipe size (NPS). Pipes have fixed outside diameter (O/D) and variable inside diameter based on the thickness selected.
The codes used for pipe selection are
ASME B 36.10- Welded and seamless wrought steel pipes
ASME B 36.9- Stainless steel pipes

The different sizes and thickness which are available are specified in above standards.
Thickness of pipe is generally designated by schedule no. and the corresponding thickness specified.

Types of pipes:
1. Seamless:
Pipe produced by piercing a billet followed by rolling or drawing or both.
They are used for high pressure applications.

2. Welded:
a. Electric fusion welded (EFW): Pipes carrying a single or double longitudinal but weld joined wherein coalescence is produced by manual or automatic electric arc welding in the preformed tube.

b. Electric resistance welded: (ERW): Pipe carrying ongitudinal but weld joined wherein coalescence is produced by heat obtained from resistance of the pipe to flow of electric current in a circuit of which the pipe is a part and by application of pressure.

The Three Major types of piping system
A look at the three major types of piping systems in order to gain a better understanding of the field of plumbing as a whole.

Potable Water System
The potable water system brings water into a structure; this water comes from the community water main. There is a valve on the water main itself for each structure that can be used to shut off its water supply. From there, a single pipe brings water into the structure, and it is then distributed to individual fixtures through a network of pipes. A meter keeps track of how much total water enters the structure.

Sanitary Drainage System
The sanitary drainage system removes wastewater from a building. It consists of pipes that take out human waste and fecal matter as well as wastewater from cooking, laundry, etc. The sanitary drainage system is connected to a series of vent pipes that go through the roof vertically; this allows for the venting of gases and for the entire system to operate at atmospheric pressure. The sanitary drainage system ultimately takes wastewater to the community sewer system.

Stormwater Drainage System
The purpose of the stormwater drainage system is to carry rainwater away from a structure. In older structures, rainwater simply drains into the sanitary drainage system, but in buildings that are more modern a separate system of drains carries water into the community storm sewers. Gutters are a part of the stormwater drainage system visible from outside the structure; other components, such as drains and pipes, are below the ground.

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