The wastewater, sewage and waste liquid produced in the process of industrial production, which contain industrial production materials, intermediate products and products lost with water, and pollutants produced in the production process, are treated.
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The effective treatment of industrial wastewater should follow the following principles:
(1) The most fundamental thing is to reform the production process and eliminate the production of toxic and harmful wastewater as much as possible in the production process. Such as replacing toxic materials or products with non-toxic materials or products.
(2) In the production process of using toxic raw materials and producing toxic intermediate products and products, adopt reasonable process flow and equipment, and implement strict operation and supervision to eliminate leakage and minimize loss.
(3) Wastewater containing highly toxic substances, such as some heavy metals, radioactive substances, high-concentration phenol, cyanide, etc., should be diverted from other waste water to facilitate treatment and recovery of useful substances.
(4) Some wastewater with large flow and light pollution, such as cooling wastewater, should not be discharged into the sewer, so as not to increase the load of urban sewers and sewage treatment plants. Such waste water should be recycled after proper treatment in the plant.
(5) Organic wastewater whose composition and properties are similar to urban sewage, such as papermaking wastewater, sugar wastewater, food processing wastewater, etc., can be discharged into the urban sewage system. Large-scale sewage treatment plants should be built, including simple and feasible treatment facilities such as biological oxidation ponds, sewage reservoirs, and land treatment systems built according to local conditions. Compared with small-scale sewage treatment plants, large-scale sewage treatment plants can not only significantly reduce capital construction and operating costs, but also maintain good operating conditions and treatment effects because of stable water volume and water quality.
(6) Some toxic wastewater that can be biodegraded, such as wastewater containing phenol and cyanide, can be discharged into urban sewers according to the allowable discharge standards after being treated in the factory, and further biooxidative degradation treatment will be carried out by the sewage treatment plant.
(7) Wastewater containing toxic pollutants that are difficult to biodegrade should not be discharged into urban sewers or sent to sewage treatment plants, but should be treated separately.